Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) is a member of the Eph family of tyrosine kinase receptors. Eph receptors have been shown to play a critical role in the development of the nervous system, where they regulate patterning during neural development. The ligands for Eph receptors are ephrins. Ephrin receptors and ligands have been found to be frequently overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers. Contrary to the usual finding that the oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinase receptors are promoted by the autophosphorylation of the receptor, it is the dephosphorylation of EphA2 that is associated with its oncogenic activity. The major study of EphA2 has been in relation to its contribution to malignancy and the possibility of targeting it in cancer therapy.