Importin-9 (IPO9) functions in nuclear protein import as a nuclear transport receptor. IPO9 serves as receptor for nuclear localization signals (NLS) in cargo substrates. It is thought to mediate docking of the importin/substrate complex to the nuclear pore complex (NPC) through binding to nucleoporin and the complex is subsequently translocated through the pore by an energy requiring, Ran-dependent mechanism. At the nucleoplasmic side of the NPC, Ran binds to the importin, the importin/substrate complex dissociates and importin is re-exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where GTP hydrolysis releases Ran. The directionality of nuclear import is thought to be conferred by an asymmetric distribution of the GTP- and GDP-bound forms of Ran between the cytoplasm and nucleus (By similarity). IPO9 mediates the nuclear import of H2B histone (By similarity), RPS7 and RPL18A. It prevents the cytoplasmic aggregation of RPS7 and RPL18A by shielding exposed basic domains. IPO9 may also import H2A, H3, H4 histones (By similarity), RPL4 and RPL6 [taken from the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q96P70].