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Overview of Immunology

Jump to Antibodies

Immunology is the study of cells of the immune system, their development and functions, and how they cooperate to protect us from foreign invaders and cancer. Each type of leukocyte has its own set of surface receptors and specialized functions. By genetic recombination T and B lymphocytes develop unique receptors that respond to specific antigens and distinguish self from non-self. Immune cells use cell-cell interactions, antigen capture, processing, and presentation, and soluble mediators to produce inflammatory reactions and antigen-specific responses. Mature B cells produce antibodies, while T cells are responsible for cellular responses. T and B cells also combine to generate immunologic memory which allows the immune system to respond more vigorously to subsequent exposures to the same antigens.

It is notable that the study of immunology led to the generation of antisera and monoclonal antibodies. These useful tools in turn led to the development of techniques such as flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation which are widely used in all other fields of biomedical research.

Bethyl’s immunology portfolio contains more than 4,600 antibodies. These antibodies have been manufactured on-site by our scientists. Our rigorous validation process ensures that the antibody will work in the applications outlined on the datasheet. These applications include: Western blot, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, proximity ligation assay, and ChIP. A Bethyl antibody is first validated for specificity in immunoprecipitation and/or western blot and if it passes our team will validate the antibody for additional applications. Our products are backed with a 100% guarantee to work in your assay, when used in under the same conditions outlined on the product datasheet, which provides confident, reliable results.

Bethyl sells a wide variety of antibodies for studying immunology. Recent publications using our antibodies for immunology research include:

  • Using proteomics to identify novel human proteins that interact with hepatitis C proteins during infection and lead to better viral replication and immune evasion1
  • How human cytomegalovirus circumvents the innate immune system through a direction interaction with PML nuclear bodies2
  • Understanding how Kaposi’s Sarcoma virus modifies the host NF-kB pathway to enable a latent infection and avoid the immune response3
  • Exploring how infection with HIV can increase the risk of reactivation of latent viral particles during infection via IL-6 expression and JAK/STAT signaling4
  • Examining how an Epstein-Barr virus activates the NF-kB pathway and mediates B-cell transformation and presents possible therapeutic targets to infections5


Detection of PCNA by in human stomach carcinoma by IF

Detection of human PCNA (red) in FFPE gastric carcinoma by IHC-IF.  Antibody: Rabbit anti-PCNA (IHC-00012). Secondary: DyLight® 594 conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG (A120-314D4). Counterstain: DAPI (blue).

Fluorescent detection of Lamin A/C, Matrin 3, and Beta-catenin in FFPE human adrenal by IHC.

Detection of human Lamin-A (green), Matrin 3 (orange), and Beta-catenin (red) in FFPE human adrenal by IHC-IF. Antibodies: Rabbit anti-Lamin-A (A303-432A), rabbit anti-Matrin 3 (IHC-00081), and rabbit anti-Beta-catenin (IHC-00584). Secondary: DyLight® 488 conjugated goat anti-rabbit (A120-201D2),  DyLight® 550 conjugated goat anti-rabbit (A120-201D3), DyLight® 594 conjugated goat anti-rabbit (A120-201D4).  Counterstain: DAPI (blue).

Detection of human CD19 by WB of Ramos cells.

Detection of human CD19 by WB of Ramos cells. Antibody: Rabbit anti-CD19 (A304-392A). Secondary: HRP-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG (A120-101P).


Below is the entire list of targets involved with immunology. Can’t find what you are looking for? Bethyl offers a custom antibody service.



1. Germain MA, Chatel-Chaix L, Gagné B, Bonneil É, Thibault P, Pradezynski F, de Chassey B, Meyniel-Schicklin L, Lotteau V, Baril M, et al. 2014. Elucidating novel hepatitis C virus-host interactions using combined mass spectrometry and functional genomics approaches. Mol Cell Proteomics. Jan;13(1):184-203. [Bethyl antibodies used: DDX3X (A300-474A) and ILF2/NF45 (A303-147A)]

2. Schilling EM, Scherer M, Reuter N, Schweininger J, Muller YA, Stamminger T. 2017. The Human Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Antagonizes PML Nuclear Body-Mediated Intrinsic Immunity via the Inhibition of PML De Novo SUMOylation. J Virol. Jan 31;91(4):e02049-16.  [Bethyl antibodies used: PML (A301-168A & A301-167A]

3. He Z, Zhao J, Zhang J, Jung JU, Feng P. 2014. NF-κB activation coordinated by IKKβ and IKKε enables latent infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol. Jan;88(1):444-455. [Bethyl antibody used: RelA (S468) (A302-064A). Please note this antibody have not been validated by Bethyl for use in IP and as such Bethyl cannot guarantee results as published in this paper.]

4. Zeng Y, Zhang X, Huang Z, Cheng L, Yao S, Qin D, Chen X, Tang Q, Lv Z, Zhang L, et al. 2007. Intracellular Tat of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activates lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: role of JAK/STAT signaling. J Virol. Mar;81(5):2401-2417. [Bethyl antibody: STAT6 (A300-415A).

5. Greenfeld H1 Takasaki K, Walsh MJ, Ersing I, Bernhardt K, Ma Y, Fu B, Ashbaugh CW, Cabo J, Mollo SB, et al. 2015. TRAF1 Coordinates Polyubiquitin Signaling to Enhance Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1-Mediated Growth and Survival Pathway Activation. PLoS Pathog. May 21;11(5):e1004890. [Bethyl antibodies: SHARPIN (A303-559), TRAF2 (A303-460A), HOIP/RNF31 (A303-560A)]