Overview of Cell Cycle

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Throughout the life of a cell, it will go through phases of division (mitosis) and what appears to be rest (interphase).  This sequence of highly regulated events is referred to as the cell cycle and is made up of two major phases: interphase and mitosis. In order for the cell to move from one phase to the next, it must pass through a series of checkpoints to ensure that conditions are favorable for progression1.

The cell cycle is an ordered set of events culminating in cell growth, duplication and eventual cell division2,3. During interphase, the cell grows at a steady rate and makes a copy of its own DNA. During the mitotic phase the cell separates into two new identical “daughter cells”.  Cells typically spend far more time in interphase than they do in mitosis2.  Interphase is made up of three phases, G1, S and G2, and is followed by mitosis.  Once mitosis has completed the cells enter G1.  During G1, the cell is metabolically active and growing, but does not begin duplicating its DNA.  G1, is followed by S phase, in which the cell duplicates all of its DNA.  Once DNA duplication is completed, the G2 phase begins, during which cell growth is continued and the cell prepares for mitosis4.

The progression of cells through the cell cycle is regulated by a series of checkpoints and intra- and extra-cellular signals1,4.  G1 and G2 are comprised of checkpoints in which specialized proteins determine whether the necessary conditions exist in order for the cell to progress to the next steps1. In addition, growth factors, for example, are extracellular signals for cells in various steps in the cell cycle. At the end of G1, each cell passes through a major checkpoint, the restriction point, that controls the progression the S phase1,4.  The passage of cells through the restriction point is primarily regulated by extracellular growth factors that ensure environmental factors are favorable for replication.  Cells that pass the restriction point enter S phase, but if environmental factors are not favorable, cells may enter a resting phase known as G0. Some cells even remain in G0 for the entire lifetime of the organism1,4.

Another major checkpoint takes place just before at the end of a G2.  At this checkpoint, cells are arrested to be sure DNA replication is completed and in response to DNA damage1,4.  DNA repair can also take place during this time.  There is also another checkpoint at the end of mitosis to ensure the chromosomes have properly attached to the spindles that will separate them during cell division1

The cell cycle is comprised of four phases that are necessary for both cell growth and replication.  There are a series of checkpoint that ensure the cell is growing and replicating correctly, and ensure that mitosis can only proceed when conditions are favorable for success.  Collectively, this helps to prevent cellular and chromosomal abnormalities in daughter cells1,4. Bethyl manufactures many antibodies to proteins involved in all phases of the cell cycle.

 

Detection of human and mouse PSMB4 by WB of 293T, HeLa, Jurkat, and mouse NIH3T3 lysate

Detection of human and mouse PSMB4 by WB of 293T, HeLa, Jurkat, and mouse NIH3T3 lysate. Antibody: Rabbit anti-PSMB4 (A303-819A). Secondary: HRP-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG (A120-101P).

Detection of human Phospho MCM2 (S53) in FFPE ovarian carcinoma by IHC

Detection of human Phospho MCM2 (S53) in FFPE ovarian carcinoma by IHC. Antibody: Rabbit anti-Phospho MCM2 (S53) (A300-765A). Secondary: HRP-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG (A120-501P). Substrate: DAB.

Detection of human gamma-H2AX (red) in formaldehyde-fixed HeLa cells treated with neocarzinostatin (left) and untreated (right) by ICC

Detection of human gamma-H2AX (red) in formaldehyde-fixed HeLa cells treated with neocarzinostatin (left) and untreated (right) by ICC. Antibody: Rabbit anti-H2AX (A300-081A). Secondary: DyLight® 594-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG (A120-201D4). Counterstain: DAPI (blue).

 

Below is the entire list of targets involved in cell cycle research. Can’t find what you are looking for? Bethyl offers a custom antibody service.

 

Cell Cycle

References

1. Scitable by Nature Education.  Eukaryotes and Cell Cycle.  https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/eukaryotes-and-cell-cycle-14046014 

2. The Biology Project. Cell Biology. The Cell Cycle & Mitosis Tutorial.  http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/cell_cycle/cells2.html

3. Phases of the Cell Cycle. https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-molecular-biology/mitosis/a/cell-cycle-phases

4. The Cell: A molecular Approach, 2nd https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9876/